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TITLE :

Alias, A. 2007. Symbiotic improvement of Trichogrammatoidea cojuangcoi Nagaraja. The biocontrol agent of the cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen). Msc Thesis. Universiti Malaysia Sabah

DESCRIPTION :

A study was conducted to improve the performance of Trichogrammatoidea cojuangcoi Nagaraja, the biocontrol agent of the cocoa pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) through production of all female strains. It commenced with prospecting for egg parasitoids of CPB in cocoa smallholders’ fields in Sabah, which then lead to discovery of two egg parasitoids, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii and Trichogrammatoidea cojuangcoi Nagaraja. The former is a new record in Malaysia since yet reported parasitizing on CPB eggs, while the latter reconfirmed earlier findings although its was previously wrongly identified as Trichogrammatoidea bactrae fumata Nagaraja. PCR analysis indicates the presence of Wolbachia in local species, particularly for Td. cojuangcoi collected from Tenom although the impact on the female production is indistinguishable. Inter-specific horizontal transfer studies demonstrated that the bacteria could be spread horizontally when sharing the same host although the rate of transmission was regarded as inconsistent and low. Fitness studies of transfected Td. cojuangcoi suggest that the biological traits of the egg parasitoids are almost similar to wild parasitoids, although we expected some improvement in female production for the transfected lines or to those having a natural heritable Wolbachia. This could be due to Wolbachia losing its densities after rearing for several generations or the bacterium does not influence the female fitness at all. Our study also indicates that some of the virgin females collected from Tawau are capable to produce both sexes. This suggests that Td. cojuangcoi has a deuterotoky mode of reproduction, i.e. a mixture of parthenogenesis and sexual reproduction. A similar observation was made on transfected Td. cojuangcoi carrying ‘kaykai’ Wolbachia, collected from Tenom. The other parasitoids were observed to have a bisexual mode of reproduction. However, the successful parasitization on CPB eggs by Td. cojuangcoi was not influenced by the presence of Wolbachia or mode of reproduction. The study did indicate that Td. cojuangcoi collected from Tenom is the most promising biocontrol agent for controlling the CPB because of consistent success in field parasitism. Furthermore, this parasitoid is the second larger and produced higher percentages of female progeny, apart from inheriting a naturally present Wolbachia. In general, we were unsuccessful to produce an all-female strain but with the discovery of new parasitoids, this may help improving the efficacy if both of them are released simultaneously.

AUTHOR : 

  Alias, A.

PUBLISH YEAR :

2007

PRICE :

Not for sale

CONTACT PERSON :

Dr. Alias Awang

ADDRESS :

Bagan Datuk (Perak),

       Lembaga Koko Malaysia,Pusat Penyelidikan dan Pembangunan Koko ,

       Peti Surat 30,

       Jalan Sg. Dulang ,

       36307 Sg.Sumun ,Perak Darul Rizuan

TELEPHONE :

05-6488176 / 05-6488224

FAX :

05-6489151

EMAIL :

aliasawang@koko.gov.my



Updated by DIREKTORAT on 27-Nov-13
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